An appeal is a resort to a higher authority or greater power, as for sanction, corroboration, or a decision. It is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision. The specific procedures for appealing vary from country to country. The nature of an appeal can vary depending on the type of case, even within a jurisdiction.
An appellate court is a court that hears cases on appeal from another court. The specific grounds for appeal typically could include errors of law, fact, or due process. Appellate courts are also called appeals courts, courts of appeals, superior courts, or supreme courts.
A party who files an appeal is called an appellant and a party on the other side is called an appellee. A cross-appeal is an appeal brought by the respondent. The appellant in the new case can be either the plaintiff defendant, or appellee from the lower case depending on who was the losing party. The appellee is required to respond to the petition, oral arguments, and legal briefs of the appellant. Generally, the appellee takes the procedural posture that the lower court’s decision should be affirmed.